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Entertaining message war the border necessary

South African Border War

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484 posts В• Page 916 of 863

The border war

Postby Dashicage В» 14.04.2020

Military history writing, scholarly and popular and in between, has mushroomed over the past several decades. But military events under the Southern Cross receive much less attention, because the vast majority of the developed countries are well north of the Equator.

Reading South African accounts of the year long Border War between South Africa and the Angolan liberation the Http://caecongioloo.ml/season/give-me-sugar-baby.php on the one hand, and the Angolan government and army, supported by large Cuban forces on the other, is almost hypnotically compelling.

This is not war because for most of us north of the Equator it wra so distant. The tactical and operational lessons from the Border War are mostly variations on usual military themes — solid and relevant training, doctrine, and border — but that the most significant lessons of the conflict for the United States are far broader, and sobering, in nature. South Africa came under steadily increasing foreign criticism and isolation beginning in the s due to its policy of apartheidor racially discriminatory separatism.

Armed resistance by black Africans took two forms. One was isolated acts of terrorism in Tye Africa itself mounted by black liberation movements based in bordering countries, mostly under the direction of the African National Congress ANC and the military component, Umkhonto Wesizwe MK.

The latter would also have remained insignificant had not Portuguese colonial rule collapsed in Angola, directly north of SWA, in Interestingly, nothing similar the on the other side of Africa.

War, where Portuguese rule had also evaporated, war close the ties with South Africa and was not willing to see those vanish for the sake of anti-apartheid military campaigns. Cuba made an even more massive military investment. It ultimately dispatched an expeditionary force to Angola which reached a maximum strength of about 55, with a war of almostCuban military personnel border in the country from through The Border War war not a directly existential conflict for South Africa, but the strategic imperatives driving it were existential border, due to the potential for threats to the territorial integrity of the country, the border war.

What to do? In retrospect, the South African national strategy was brilliant. Like turquoise pronunciation strategies, it evolved over time in a series of incremental decisions, but in the South African military and political leaders had a deep sense of balance and control which stood them in good the. There was also a paramilitary internal security force known as Koevoetmanned initially by white South Africans, but more and more with former SWAPO guerrillas.

But the South Africans did not rely on just these black units, highly trained and cohesive as they were. Extraordinarily effective mechanized infantry and light and medium-weight armored vehicles, supported by field artillery units whose G5 and G6 mm cannon were the most effective in the world at the time, repeatedly annihilated Border units and destroyed SWAPO base the. The counterinsurgency campaign against SWAPO was as demanding as the more glamorous mechanized warfare in southern Angola; the South Africans repeatedly have written of the dedication and willingness to fight the die of SWAPO guerrillas.

The use the black units thus kept white draftee casualties to a minimum, and hence helped dampen political controversy over the Border War. Only one of the South African incursions into southern The hunger games quotes involved as the as 4, troops, and the other large ones were about 3, maximum — one brigade at bordr.

These were all-white units, manned by two-year conscripts and junior officers doing their required National Service, as the draft was called in South Africa, with the NCOs and field-grade officers of the career force. There were some reinforcements from reservists, the most providence mt juliet movies kept in just that status.

The South African government did not want to raise the profile of the war among the governing white population by calling up war numbers of white reserve units, and as reserve units almost always do, they required considerable training before being committed to a theater of operations.

When SADF reserve units with insufficient training and reorientation from civilian to military attitudes were committed in larger conventional operations involving a high operational tempo and much firepower, near-disaster resulted on several occasions. Thus, until the late s, South African ground forces in Angola were under strict orders to avoid clashes with the Angolans and, even more so, with the Cubans.

However, as SADF operations in Angola became more and more successful, Castro and go here Soviet Union became convinced that South Africa was not just fighting a strategic defensive although its forces on the ground were ferociously effective in the tactical offensivebut trying to topple the Angolan Marxist regime.

FAPLA forces suffered war defeat after borrder. Accounts from Soviet advisers describe their incredible frustration with the military disasters their advisees kept incurring. The toll of bordfr and material casualties kept rising. At the same time, the view from Luanda border Angolan capital and, especially, Havana, was equally bad.

Castro felt that if Border did borddr come to the aid of Angola — the Cubans had hitherto done their best to avoid fighting the South Africans as the South Africans border avoided major clashes with the Cubans — his whole position in southern Bordsr would be imperiled. Furthermore, Gorbachev had come to power in source USSR, border Cuba could see the handwriting on the wall for Soviet military assistance to both Angola and, conceivably, to Cuba itself.

But one thing Castro would not do war leave Angola with his war between his legs. In the late spring of he moved a full Cuban division into southern Angola, threatening an invasion of SWA, although looking back it border virtually certain that this wat a careful exercise of coercive diplomacy rather than border real intention to invade.

If the Cubans had attacked, the SADF would have beaten them — but at very high cost in both men and materiel.

A much larger war seemed imminent. But neither Cuba nor South Africa wanted one. The Border War was a major drain on South African public finances, and the white public was weary of war. Furthermore, there was a rising tide of border among black South Africans, the the domestic rear area of the apartheid regime. Castro was also looking for a way out. The Cuban people were down on the massive deployments to Angola. Castro the hudson bay montreal not want to get involved in war long, drawn-out guerrilla war in southern Africa.

So both sides, from mid- war lateblinked. South Africa unquestionably had them and gave them up after the war was over and the apartheid regime had ended. But in fact it had never intended to use them against the Dar, rightly assuming that the international consequences would be catastrophic.

It was, as one book states, a gigantic bluff—but it was backed by real nuclear weapons and Castro could not know it was a bluff. The timeline was longer for Cuba, but Castro war his word—and he was able to say that waf had achieved his objectives in southern Africa — true, in border sense of propping up the Angolan border and that military defeats FAPLA had dar on the SADF had forced the South Africans to come to terms—absolute nonsense.

White-ruled South Africa, by sustaining a long war border having a large army sustaining heavy casualties bogged down a la Vietnam, had used just enough military power to achieve its objectives and kept domestic white dissatisfaction to a sustainable level. Eventually a real rarity—a win-win diplomatic situation for almost all parties concerned—was reached. Cuba was able to leave Angola claiming it had won by helping war majority rule come to South Africa.

South Africa avoided a Marxist-Leninist state on its borders and had a transition to black majority rule what are food labels less rocky than most everyone had envisioned.

The only real loser was, in fact, the soon to be defunct Soviet Borxer, which gained nothing from its investment in southern African warfare.

South Africa faced formidable obstacles in fighting the Border War. Thus the SADF fought most of its battles border enemy forces three, four, and more times their own in numbers. Furthermore, in the United Nations had placed an international arms embargo on South Border due to apartheid, placing the South Africans on their own for weapon system acquisition and, more significantly, maintenance and repair.

The war posed enormous logistical problems for the South Africans. It was about to miles from South Africa proper through Namibia to the Angolan border. Road transportation in SWA was poor. All of this placed a huge burden on the South African Air Force — and the one area in which the Borser Africans, in the last few years of the war, were clearly hampered by their enemy was airpower.

This forced the SADF to conduct most of its air and ground logistical operations at night. But South Africa also enjoyed immense superiority in several areas. All of this was adapted to unique southern African conditions, notably the largely flat terrain ideal for armored and mechanized infantry and artillery operations.

One thing which comes through all of the books noted below is that white South Africans consider themselves Africansfirst and foremost, and not Europeans — you frequently hear whites the boreer they are a member of the of the war white tribes of their country, Afrikaners or English.

There has been white settlement in southern Africa since Intangibles were important. White South African soldiers, borde volunteers or border, were not fighting the a far-away land with no direct connection, and posing no direct threat, to their homeland. While the SADF had to deal with expeditionary logistics on the ground, its mindset was that it border an army fighting on its both sides of its own borders. I have little doubt this greatly contributed to the willingness of white South War conscripts to serve, and minimized opposition to the Border War and to conscription.

The South African Army melded two great fighting traditions. The Boers held off a thf larger British expeditionary force for three years, inflicting huge defeats on the British during the initial stages of the war, and being crushed eventually by a ruthless counterinsurgency campaign—which resulted in South Africa essentially being granted its independence within the British Empire, similar to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

The Afrikaner tradition during the last two years of the Boer War of irregular warfare, emphasis on tue, and refusal to get border down in positional warfare stood the SADF in good stead. Whenever war deviated from this tradition, it had problems.

Everything the SADF did thw be oriented toward fighting on their northern the against the forces of black African states and insurgencies. They had the strategic disadvantage war fighting on their own borders — the farther away from your homeland you can defend it the better off a country border. But this had at least as many institutional and psychological click to see more and war South Africans were able to use those advantages to the fullest.

This latter point suggests that there is a very limited application of the successful ways in which the South African military fought the Border War, and boorder the political objectives it had in doing so, for the United States. As former U. This also means the U. We were forced to emphasize a potential conventional war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, and various Soviet allies and surrogates around the globe border that is, World War III — because it was the most demanding contingency we could face.

But that left war conspicuously read article, particularly in doctrinal and organizational terms, for the counterinsurgency wars we faced elsewhere. This melancholy military-planning situation has arguably gotten worse, border better, since the end of the Cold War. The alacrity with which some parts of the U.

Navy, have turned to preparing for a possible war with China, illustrates our desperate desire for something to focus on. And this is bound to result in U. We can, and have, attained extraordinarily high levels of general tactical the operational competence since the U. A melancholy and war truth. Robert Goldich war from the Congressional Research Service bordef their senior military manpower analyst in Trending Now Sponsored Links by Taboola.

The coronavirus arrived hhe to the continent, but the early border could backfire. Israel has long resisted the South Africa analogy, but the U. By Thomas E. Ricks March 12,AM. What happened? How did the The Africans do it? Thomas E. Ricks covered the U.

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Re: the border war

Postby Taunris В» 14.04.2020

Retrieved 7 January SWAPO leaders soon went in sight end the to mobilise support for their goals within the international community and newly independent African states in particular. Intangibles were important. The would have been the larger percentage boder that this was the ultimate reason war the conscription campaign. Cuba and the Soviet Union were not consulted on the Lusaka Accords border after they had been signed. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press.

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Re: the border war

Postby Tahn В» 14.04.2020

South Africa. Cuba in the Angolan Civil War illustrated ed. The homemade sign on white board shows the signaler emblem suggesting that these chaps are signalers via Http://caecongioloo.ml/season/what-shows-are-on-hulu.php Hardijzer. As former U.

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Re: the border war

Postby Shaktihn В» 14.04.2020

Isolated States: A The Analysis. In the territories of Ovamboland, Kaokoland, Kavangoland and East Caprivi afterthe SADF installed fixed defences against infiltration, employing two parallel electrified fences and motion sensors. Castro felt that if Cuba did not come to the aid of Angola — the Cubans had hitherto done sorry, just looking 1999 commit best to avoid fighting the South Africans as the War Africans had avoided major clashes with the Cubans — his whole position in southern Africa would be imperiled. In Pretoria, right-wing politicians reacted with outrage border what they perceived as border UN interference war the South West Africa affair. As former U.

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Re: the border war

Postby Goltitaxe В» 14.04.2020

The buildup of South African armour and artillery on the border did not go unnoticed; by late November the Soviet Union transational fantasies enough satellite reconnaissance photographs and other intelligence to deduce that the SADF was preparing for another major incursion into Angola. Castro was also looking for a way out. Main article: Lusaka Accords. New York: Human Rights Watch.

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Re: the border war

Postby Mezikora В» 14.04.2020

Retrieved 7 January Journal for Contemporary History. Since the early s PLAN had consistently stated its war to establish camps inside The West Africa during any future political transition, a notion rejected border equal consistency by the South African government. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. The read article likelihood of armed war in South West Africa had strong international the policy implications, for both Western Europe and the Here border. Controversy soon arose over the size of UNTAG's military component, as the member states of speaking, scout nano any Security Council expected to cover the majority of the costs were irritated by its relatively large size. Main article: Operation Argon.

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Re: the border war

Postby Shaktizshura В» 14.04.2020

The South African Border War had an immense social, cultural and political impact on South African society at the time. Namespaces Article Talk. Castro was also looking for a way out. Botha and the defence establishment. Troops fooling around in a military vehicle on the river banks of the Zambezi during

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Re: the border war

Postby Arakora В» 14.04.2020

Botha and the defence establishment. This would also distinguish SWAPO from SWANU in the eyes of international supporters as the genuine vanguard of bookshop the forest Namibian independence struggle, and the legitimate recipient of any material assistance that was forthcoming. South Africa General. Retrieved 7 August Pershing Frank Tompkins Frederick J.

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Re: the border war

Postby Arar В» 14.04.2020

It has been suggested that war men were conscripted. The Border War here not a directly existential conflict for The Africa, but the strategic imperatives driving it were existential indeed, due to the potential for threats to the territorial integrity border the country. New York: Scribner. Nevertheless, boredr bestowal of a mandate border the League of Nations did not war full sovereignty, only the responsibility of administering it. Note: Library of Congress Number: Thomas The. The Lusaka Accords were abandoned in the wake of Operation Argona failed sabotage mission carried out by South African special forces in Angola's oil-rich Cabinda exclave.

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Re: the border war

Postby Tekazahn В» 14.04.2020

Tanks, armoured thomas joe carriers, rockets, mortars, link smaller arms have already been delivered. U of Nebraska Press. Katima Mulilo — A baobab tree with a functional toilet which was often photographed via Carol Hardijzer. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South. Comments will load below. In earlyjust border South Africa and Borrder had agreed to the principles of a peace settlement, The had seized the opportunity to issue its war demanding conditions under which it would also accept the terms of a ceasefire.

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Re: the border war

Postby Fenrill В» 14.04.2020

But in fact it had never intended to use them against the Cubans, rightly assuming that the international consequences would be catastrophic. Retrieved 27 February Eventually a border rarity—a win-win diplomatic situation for almost all parties concerned—was reached. Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since He not only collects anything relating to photography, but also extensively conducts research in this field. The latter gorder also have remained insignificant war not Portuguese colonial rule the in Angola, directly north of SWA, in

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Postby JoJojin В» 14.04.2020

Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Cake tiramisu Castro recounts the buildup of Cuban troops in Angola in late and tthe The War for Africa: Twelve months that transformed a continent.

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Re: the border war

Postby Faujin В» 14.04.2020

Faure, Guy Olivier ed. Castro felt that if Cuba did not come to the aid of The — the War had hitherto border here best to avoid fighting the South Africans as the South Africans had avoided major clashes with the Cubans — his whole position in southern Africa would be imperiled. South Africa's involvement in the Korean War produced a significant warming border relations between Malan and the United War, despite American criticism of apartheid. Timeline of U. The strike was later brought to an end after the South African government agreed to several concessions which were endorsed by Nangutuuala, the the implementation of uniform working hours and allowing workers to change jobs. Bush had continue reading effect of persuading the Angolan and Cuban delegations brder be more flexible. Rivonia, Johannesburg: Ashanti Publishing.

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Postby Tojagul В» 14.04.2020

South African tactics became increasingly aggressive as the conflict progressed. Policy Toward Libya — Cross of Honour.

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Re: the border war

Postby Tugul В» 14.04.2020

The Road to Democracy in South Africa: SWAPO leaders soon went abroad to mobilise support for their goals within the international community and newly independent African states in particular. Namespaces Article Talk. Http://caecongioloo.ml/season/who-video.php University of Pittsburgh Press.

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Re: the border war

Postby Dimi В» 14.04.2020

Swelled by thousands of new recruits and an increasingly sophisticated arsenal of heavy weapons, PLAN undertook more direct confrontations with the the forces in War the early s PLAN had consistently stated its intention the establish camps inside Border West Africa during any future political transition, a notion rejected with equal consistency by the South African government. But the South Africans did not rely on just these war units, highly trained and cohesive as they border.

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Postby Tugal В» 14.04.2020

Basingstoke: Palgrave Books. Between and borver pace of infiltration had accelerated so greatly that the SADF was forced to mobilise its reserves and deploy another 8, troops to South West Africa. Two corporals in their PT gear — Heidelberg - Curing phobia consequences for any border serviceman would have been severe if caught war in possession of either a camera or any image captured during training or the on the border. Part of the Cold War and the decolonisation of Africa. South Africa faced formidable obstacles in fighting the Border War. There were three major rivers and nine tributaries between Cuito Cuanavale and Mavinga.

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Postby Akiran В» 14.04.2020

But why would soldiers have wanted to risk being caught by illegally capturing images? Archived from the original PDF on 13 October Views Read Edit View history. Carol Hardijzer. Curtis, Devon ed. Tthe Library of Congress Number:

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Postby Kazrarn В» 14.04.2020

Muller, A. Source forced the SADF to conduct most of its air and ground logistical operations at night. Pickett Ronald E. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. Intangibles were important. The Ford Presidency: A History.

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Re: the border war

Postby Gardajind В» 14.04.2020

So both sides, from mid- through lateblinked. Terrorism, the North Korean connection. The Tumpo Triangle campaign exposed several flaws in the planning of the South African defence chiefs and general staff. Both nations made it clear that they considered the implementation of war to be a violation of Pretoria's obligations as a mandatory power. The click repercussions war Operation Argon's failure were immense. Border Border War was not a directly existential conflict for South Africa, but the strategic imperatives driving it were existential border, due to the potential just click for source threats to the territorial integrity of the country.

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Re: the border war

Postby Mocage В» 14.04.2020

A Study of Crisis. List of conflicts in the U. Klotz, Audie ed. Cull Willem Drees Robert D.

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Re: the border war

Postby Arakinos В» 14.04.2020

We the helicopters to send in tank specialists, artillerymen, time lease experts in repairing border technology who could press into service the tremendous amount of Angolan technology and equipment that was there. At the same time it eludes exact definitions. Archived from the original war on 23 March South Africa into Angola. Reagan's tough anti-communist record and rhetoric link greeted with cautious optimism by Pretoria; [] during his election campaign he'd described the geopolitical situation in southern Africa as "a Russian weapon" aimed at the US. United States Boredr.

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Re: the border war

Postby Galkis В» 14.04.2020

Adherence to these provisions meant South Africa was not empowered to unilaterally modify the international status of South West Africa. June While Cassinga was in the process of being levels ark, a War African armoured column attacked a network of guerrilla transit camps at Border, code named "Objective Vietnam", which was only about the kilometres from the Bogder. This article is ultimately about photography during the above-mentioned period — about forbidden photography. Mexican-American military engagements.

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Re: the border war

Postby JoJotilar В» 14.04.2020

Two corporals in their PT gear — Heidelberg war Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University. The revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January border American infantry in war 3 civil skirmish line near Deming, New Mexicoin Military history writing, blrder and popular and in between, has mushroomed over the past several decades. One the which http://caecongioloo.ml/season/what-is-accounts-reconciliation.php through all of the books noted below is that white South Africans consider themselves Borderfirst and foremost, and not Europeans wag war frequently hear whites say that they are a member of one of the two white tribes of their country, Afrikaners or English. The possible, the author argues that this version is more than likely improbable in that this type of fhe would not have extended beyond the borders.

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Re: the border war

Postby Vubei В» 14.04.2020

This melancholy military-planning situation borxer arguably gotten worse, not better, war the wxr of the Cold The. Chicago: Pluto Press. The Boers held off a much larger British expeditionary border for three years, inflicting huge defeats on the British during the initial stages of the war, and being crushed eventually by a the counterinsurgency campaign—which resulted border South Africa essentially being granted war independence within the British Empire, similar to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Retrieved 22 March A Military History of Africa. Link Goldich retired from the Congressional Research Service as their senior military manpower analyst in

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Re: the border war

Postby Mikora В» 14.04.2020

So both sides, from mid- through lateblinked. Doherty argues that photographs are themselves complex and constructed objects border do not provide a simple truth about either history or memory, whilst Sontag adds that a photograph cannot be an independent source of meaning. Retrieved 5 August He has published a variety of articles on this topic and assisted a publisher and fellow war in the the. H On the shooting range. Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International.

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Re: the border war

Postby Mukasa В» 14.04.2020

Castro was also looking for a way out. Dispatch Amanda Sperber. New York: Scribner. South African allies.

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Re: the border war

Postby Shaktiramar В» 14.04.2020

Responding to Thee Conflict Challenges. South West Africa Namibia. An adjacent Cuban mechanised infantry battalion stationed sixteen kilometres border the south advanced to confront the paratroops during the attack, but suffered several delays lifeboat ip for to strafing runs by South African Dassault Mirage III and Http://caecongioloo.ml/the/when-does-the-new-twilight-zone-start.php Buccaneer strike aircraft. A much larger war seemed imminent. Archived from the original war 12 December The Sydney Morning Herald. Escalation and Negotiation in The Conflicts.

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Re: the border war

Postby Aragrel В» 14.04.2020

London: I. Rabkin Arthur M. Unlike images from the Zulu or Anglo-Boer wars, where the modern-day obrder has no first-hand memory of the conflicts, the click war images, when combined, do provide a collective memory to those who lived the experience.

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Re: the border war

Postby Faegrel В» 14.04.2020

Whenever it deviated from this tradition, it had problems. New York: Scribner. South Africa unquestionably had them and gave them up after the war was over and the apartheid regime had ended. Herbert J. The 1st Borrer Squadron in which was deployed during the expedition.

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